Записи в категории «Слова и фразы»
Аудиоурок английского языка. В разговорной речи школьников и студентов мы частенько слышим такие слова, как «качок», «ботаник», «тормоз»… Подобные выражения есть и в английском. Этот аудиоурок поможет разобраться с некоторыми наиболее используемыми выражениями.
(Да, объяснения на английском, а вы что хотели? 🙂 Здесь вам не школа с русскоязычной Марьей Ивановной в качестве учителя. Если хотите начать понимать английскую речь без проблем, другого пути нет — читайте и слушайте объяснения на этом же языке)
Retarded — This is an extremely common slang term in the English language. It basically means «stupid». You will hear this word a lot amongst friends or in movies. It is a sensitive term because it can actually refer to people who have a real mental disability. It’s used in spoken English a lot for fun without this thought in mind. You can describe people and/or things as retarded.
You are a retard.
He is such a retard.
That movie was retarded.
I shouldn’t have gone to that party last night. It was so retarded.
Moron — This slang term basically means «idiot». You can only refer to people as morons. Things can’t be morons.
She is such a moron.
Why are you listening to her advice? Don’t be so gullible! Only a moron would believe something like that.
Gay — according to the dictionary it means “happy”, but it doesn’t really mean that anymore. It often means anything that is unmanly. It can also be a boring or uncool ideal.
I can’t believe you are wearing that tight pink shirt. It looks so gay.
If you tell your friend that you want to just stay in and watch a movie on a Saturday night, your friend might say, that’s so gay.
Trash talk — Trash talking is most often used when athletes or friends, try to make their opponent lose confidence before or during a competition. A lot of NBA basketball players do a lot of «trash talking» on the court during the game. Talking trash is just talking nonsense. Sometimes people talk a lot about nothing, especially when they are drunk.
Don’t worry about anything he said last night. I know him. He always talks trash when he’s drunk.
I’m not even listening to you. You are just talking trash.
Dork — A dork is a very uncool and unpopular person. They wear unfashionable clothing, look awkward, and often have a hard time getting a girlfriend. They
aren’t bad people, they are just socially awkward. Boys are referred to as «dorks» more often than girls are.
Nerd — A nerd is quite similar to a dork. Nerds often have the stereotype of being good in school, or being «book smart» associated with them.
Geek — A geek is similar to a nerd and a dork. Nerds and geeks, aside from being book smart, are often very thin, wear glasses, and are not good at any sports. They lack social confidence. People make fun of them all the time.
Jock — Jocks are people who are good at sports and often poor academically. Jocks are almost always guys. Jocks usually have an easier time finding girlfriends in high school than geeks or dorks. Although they might not be as «smart» they are often fun and confident.
Аудиоурок английского языка. Какая разница между wouldn’t know и don’t know? Ответ на этот вопрос приблизит вашу разговорную речь к стандартам носителей языка.
I have been living in the UK for about six years, but I still have a problem in using ‘do’ and ‘would’. For example what is the different between:
He wouldn’t know and He doesn’t know?
Hi Mohammed, thanks for your question. The main point to consider here is that ‘does’ and ‘doesn’t’ are all present simple forms of the verb ‘to do’. One of the main uses of the present simple is to express a general truth, a fact, habit or routine when we’re not only thinking about now but thinking in general. In your example, you say
«He doesn’t know»
– this suggests to me a simple fact or general truth about his situation, in the same way that if I say «I don’t own a cat» or «He doesn’t like ice-cream» this is simply a general fact or truth without any particular time attached to it.
‘Would’ can be used in several different ways, but to relate my answer to your specific example,
«He wouldn’t know»,
we’re using it in this case to hypothesise or imagine how much -or conversely -how little he knows. Here we don’t think it’s very likely that he would know, but it’s not as definite as using the present simple form ‘doesn’t know’ where you feel absolutely sure about the limits of his knowledge. So one of the most common uses of ‘would’ or ‘wouldn’t’ is to hypothesise or imagine a situation or action. If we want to express this in the past, we have to use ‘would’ or ‘wouldn’t’ with ‘have’ and the past participle -in this case ‘wouldn’t have known’ or ‘wouldn’t have done.’
There was no point asking him yesterday because he wouldn’t have known then.
These are certainly not the only uses of ‘would’, but I hope, at least, this answers your question about the functions of ‘would’ as it appears in your sentence.
Аудиоурок английского. Примеры употребления слова «quite» в английской разговорной речи.
Hello Jean-Francois, thanks for your question. You asked whether ‘quite’ means ‘partially’ or
‘totally’. The simple answer is that it has both meanings.
If we say:
«I am quite happy»…
This can mean that I’m partially, fairly, somewhat happy but not completely happy — or it can
mean I’m totally, entirely, completely, 100% happy.
Your next question will probably be: How can we tell the difference?
When somebody says:
«I am quite happy»…
How do we know if they mean partially happy or totally happy?
Well, I’m sorry, but simply reading the sentence on the page can’t help us with this. If I read
the words, ‘I am quite happy’, I really don’t know if this means ‘partially’ happy or ‘completely’
happy. However, don’t despair — there are some clues that can help us solve this problem.
Firstly, we have some adjectives in English which include the idea of ‘very’.
‘delighted’ means ‘very pleased’
‘exhausted’ means ‘very tired’
‘enormous’ means ‘very big’, and so on.
‘Quite’ is often used with one of these adjectives, and in this situation, it always means ‘totally’.
So, if we say:
«I am quite exhausted»…
This means I’m absolutely, completely, 100% exhausted.
If you think about this, it’s logical because it’s impossible to be ‘somewhat very tired’ — that
doesn’t make any sense.
Secondly, we have to think about the context. Often we can clearly understand which
meaning of ‘quite’ the speaker intends, by looking at the meaning of what he or she is saying.
William’s here with me… (William: Hello!)
Let’s imagine that William has recently been ill:
Alex: Are you feeling better now?
William: Yes, I’m feeling quite healthy, thank you. In fact, I feel great!
Here, William probably means that he has fully recovered, and he’s feeling 100% healthy.
On the other hand, we could have a conversation like this:
Alex: Are you feeling better now?
William: Well, I’m feeling quite healthy, but I still have a terrible headache.
In this case, William probably means that he feels partially healthy, but not completely
Also, when these sentences are spoken, we can often get a clue from the speaker’s tone of
voice and intonation:
If he or she speaks in a positive, definite tone of voice, going down at the end of the sentence,
that probably means that he or she feels totally happy, or healthy, or whatever.
However, if the speaker’s tone is more uncertain, and if it rises at the end of the sentence, that
probably means that he or she is partially happy or healthy, but not completely.
In fact, it’s quite old-fashioned to use ‘quite’ to mean ‘totally’ or ‘completely’ — at least in
spoken English. It’s still used this way sometimes in writing, especially in formal writing, so
you might read that in a novel for example. But in modern conversational English, ‘quite’
normally means ‘partially’.
Аудиоурок английского языка. Популярные разговорные английские фразы со словом «matter».
You have probably come across the English word «matter». It is one of those difficult words that seem to mean different things in different contexts. An easy way to learn words like this is to memorise a few common expressions which contain them, and that is what we are going to do with the word «matter».
First, we have the expression «what is the matter?» If we see someone who is angry or upset, and we say to them «What is the matter?» we mean «What is wrong? What is the problem?»
Second, if we say that something «matters», we mean simply that it is important or serious.
And now, if you are clear about these explanations, lets go and see how Kevin and Joanne are.
The football season has begun. This means that on Saturday afternoons when United are playing at home, Kevin goes to the football ground to watch the match. On Saturdays when United are playing away, however, Kevin watches the match on TV. Today United have gone to London to play against Fulham, and Kevin is slumped on the sofa in front of the television, hoping that this week United will win.
In the first half, things go well. United’s striker scores a brilliant goal after about 20 minutes. But in the second half, Fulham play much better. They score a lucky goal when one of the United defenders makes a mistake. And they score again in the last minute of the game.
Kevin is not happy. «Oh no!» he shouts, and adds some words which I could not possibly repeat on a family podcast show like Listen to English. Joanne, who is doing some work on her computer in the kitchen, runs in. «What’s the matter?» she asks. «What has happened?» Kevin tells her that United have lost 2-1.
«Is that all?» asks Joanne unsympathetically. «Never mind. Its only a football match. It doesn’t matter which side wins.» But Kevin has a different view. «Of course it matters», he says. «United have lost their last three matches. If this goes on, they will be bottom of the table by Christmas.»
At this moment, there is a loud crash in the kitchen. Joanne rushes back to see what has happened. She finds the cat sitting on the kitchen table. The cat has walked over the computer keyboard and added several lines of random letters to the end of the email which Joanne had been writing. The cat has then — somehow — managed to send the email to Joanne’s boss. Finally, she (the cat, that is) has knocked over a mug of coffee which Joanna had left on the table beside the computer. The coffee has gone all over the computer keyboard, and the mug is lying broken on the floor.
«Oh no», says Joanne. «What’s the matter?» asks Kevin. Joanne explains what has happened. «It doesn’t matter,» says Kevin. «We can dry the computer with a cloth».
«Of course it matters, you idiot,» says Joanne. «Liquids ruin computer keyboards. You can’t just dry them with a cloth. And what is my boss going to think about the email. She will think I am crazy!»
Kevin and Joanne look at each other, and realise how ridiculous the situation is. They start laughing. «You’re right,» says Kevin. «It really doesn’t matter about the football.» «It doesn’t matter about the computer either,» says Joanne. «I know someone at work who can fix it. And my boss never reads her emails anyway.»
The cat sits on the table and looks at them. «What is the matter with humans?» she thinks. «First they get upset. Then they start laughing like idiots. They don’t understand that food and sleep are the only things that really matter in life.
Никто не хочет оказаться в карете скорой помощи. Особенно во время пребывания за границей, когда объясняться придётся на иностранном языке. Но всё-таки, чтобы не испытывать трудностей в общении с врачами оказывающими первую медицинскую помощь, имеет смысл послушать этот ролик и выучить несколько полезных для подобной ситуации фраз и слов.
Brad: Are you all right?
Lydia: What…what happened?
Brad: You lost consciousness and someone called 911. My name is Brad and I’m a paramedic. Can you answer a few questions for me?
Lydia: I’ll try.
Brad: Have you ever blacked out before?
Lydia: No, I don’t think so.
Brad: Do you have a history of medical problems? Do you have any allergies to medication?
Lydia: Not that I know of.
Brad: Okay. Where are you hurt? Are you in any pain?
Lydia: I think I hit my head when I fell down. Oh, it’s bleeding. Oh my God, I’m bleeding!
Brad: Stay calm and let me examine the wound.
Lydia: Oh my God, I’m going to bleed to death!
Brad: Try to stay still. The wound doesn’t look too serious, but we’ll get you to the hospital to get checked out. We’ll get a stretcher so we can get you into the ambulance and take you to the emergency room. Try to stay calm.
Lydia: Calm? How can I stay calm when I’m bleeding to death? I need a helicopter to take me to the hospital right away. Call medivac!
Brad: Ma’am, you don’t need a helicopter. I’m just going to give you a little injection to help you with the pain and to help you relax.
Lydia: I’m going to die…I’m going to…
- to lose consciousness — терять сознание
- a paramedic — парамедик, спасатель, сотрудник службы по оказанию скорой медицинской помощи
- black out — терять сознание на некоторое время, отключаться на мгновение
- Do you have any allergies to medication? — У вас есть аллергия на медикаменты?
- I’m bleeding! — Я истекаю кровью!
- let me examine the wound — дайте мне проверить рану
- Try to stay still — Постарайтесь оставаться неподвижным
- a stretcher — носилки, носилки-каталка
- emergency room (ER) — кабинет неотложной помощи
- a helicopter — вертолёт
- Call medivac! — Позвоните Медивак (авиаслужба в США для эвакуации тяжелобольных)
- an injection — укол
Урок Дженнифер об английских словах advise, recommend и suggest (кстати, неправильное употребление этих глаголов — весьма распространённая ошибка).
Несмотря на то, что они близки по смыслу, каждый из них имеет свою особенность употребления в речи.
Этот аудиоурок поможет изучить одну из достаточно трудных грамматических конструкций «wish +past perfect». Эта конструкция в английском языке выражает сожаление о чем-то не сделанном в прошлом.
Mark didn’t take his umbrella to the park, and now he regrets it. Elena bought an expensive dress, and she regrets that too.
Mark: I wish I had taken my umbrella.
Let’s break that down. Mark used: I wish, with the past perfect. Now remember, the past perfect has 3 parts; a subject, like I, you, he, then ‘had’ and finally, the past participle, for example, take, took, taken — taken is the past participle. So ‘I had taken’ is past perfect. So, when Mark says: I wish I had taken my umbrella. He’s using ‘I wish’, with past perfect, to talk about past regrets.
Mark regrets something that didn’t happen — he didn’t take his umbrella, and he wishes he had. But Elena regrets something that did happen: she bought an expensive dress, but she never wore it. So she uses I wish with I hadn’t bought — that’s a negative past perfect.
Elena: I wish I hadn’t bought a rather expensive dress in the sales.
One more thing, if you’re talking about he or she, don’t forget to say wishes instead of wish — so if you’re talking about Elena, say ‘she wishes she hadn’t bought that dress’.
subject wish(es) past perfect I wish I had bought a new coat
subject wish(es) past perfect She wishes she hadn’t bought a new coat
Do/does subject wish past perfect Does she wish she hadn’t bought a new coat?
Аудио урок английского языка. Как и в каких случаях используются английские слова: «let» и «allow».
Matt didn’t see much of the concert. When he went out to get a drink, he was refused permission to go back in. In English, to talk about giving and refusing permission, we can use both let and allow. Both words mean ‘give permission to do something’.
First, here’s Matt using let.
Matt: …they let me go out to get a drink, but then they wouldn’t let me back in!
Now the verb let is usually followed by a noun or object pronoun, and then by an infinitive without «to».
Matt: …they let me go out to get a drink…
Did you hear it? Let, me, go. Let, pronoun, infinitive.
Now, let can be made negative by using an auxiliary verb, like didn’t, can’t or wouldn’t. And it’s possible to use a prepositional phrase like ‘back in’ instead of the infinitive.
Matt: … they let me go out and get a drink, but then they wouldn’t let me back in!
Now, we can also use ‘allow’ to talk about permission. Like ‘let’, ‘allow’ is followed by a noun or
object pronoun, but then, it takes an infinitive with «to», like this:
Matt: They allowed me to go out.
Like let, you can use won’t or wouldn’t to make a negative:
Matt: They wouldn’t allow me to go back in.
But ‘allow’ is a bit more formal than ‘let’, and so it’s common to find it in the passive form, like
Matt: ‘people who leave the auditorium during a performance are not allowed to re-enter’.
Let and allow are both followed by nouns or object pronouns. ‘Let’ takes an infinitive without «to», and ‘allow’ takes an infinitive with «to».
Both can be made negative with an auxiliary verb, and allow is often used in the passive form.
infinitive or preposition phrase
They let me go out and get drink They wouldn’t let me back in
infinitive with «to»
They allowed me to go out and get drink She won’t allow anyone to smoke in the office
verb ‘to be’
infinitive with «to»
He wasn’t allowed to go out and get drink Nobody is allowed to smoke in the office
Аудио-урок о различиях между словами «pain», «ache», «sick», «ill» и «hurt».
(Аудио-ролик в конце текста)
PAIN and ACHE
A pain is usually used to refer to a kind of sharp discomfort that is difficult to ignore.
Yesterday I suddenly felt a lot of pain in my stomach. I was taken to hospital where they discovered I had appendicitis.
Ache is similar to pain, but it usually is used to refer to a duller kind of discomfort that may continue for longer than a pain might.
Headache, stomach ache, backache, heart ache.
Heartache is used to refer to a kind of emotional pain.
He is causing me a lot of heartache.
You cannot use pain in the progressive or continuous form in standard UK or US English. Pain, ache can be used in the progressive form.
My back is really aching.
I wish my leg would stop hurting, it really aches.
SICK and ILL
Sick most commonly refers to feeling as if you are going to vomit, as in:
I think I’m going to be sick
…while ill refers to any other feeling of being unwell.
There are some phrases which are commonly used where sick has a more general meaning.
I’ve been off sick for ten days. — meaning I haven’t been to work/school for ten days because I’ve been feeling unwell.
If you have children, you can be sure that you will have to clear up some sick at least once
during their childhood.
Hurt is probably most similar to pain and ache and it can also mean the same as injure or injured. The key difference between hurt and pain and ache is that usually if you are hurt, it means the discomfort you experience is clearly caused by something outside of yourself.
Be careful on that ladder, you might hurt yourself if you fall — used as a verb
He was badly hurt in the train crash — used as an adjective
When it’s used as a noun, hurt usually refers to some emotional pain.
When he told her he wanted a divorce she could hear a lot of hurt in his voice.
As you can see, the five words we have discussed here are similar in their general meaning but are quite different in their specific use.
Прослушав этот аудио-урок, вы научитесь правильно употреблять английские словосочетания: «as such» и «such as».
(Аудио-клип в конце текста)
As such has two meanings. The first is quite difficult to explain, so let’s look at an example. I could say,
I’m an English teacher, and because I’m an English teacher I hate to see grammar mistakes.
Another way to say this, with the same meaning, is like this:
I’m an English teacher, and as an English teacher I hate to see grammar mistakes.
However, in this sentence I’m saying the words an English teacher twice. An easier way to say it is like this:
I’m an English teacher, and as such I hate to see grammar mistakes.
In this example, we use the word such to represent the words ‘an English teacher’, the second time it appears. Here are some similar examples.
You could say:
She’s an athlete, and as such she has to train very hard.
The film was a romance, and as such it had the usual happy ending.
We can also use as such to mean something like exactly in a sentence like this:
The shop doesn’t sell books as such, but it does sell magazines and newspapers.
Magazines and newspapers are similar to books, but they are not exactly books. Or,
He isn’t American as such, but he’s spent most of his life there.
Spending most of your life in America is similar to being American, but it isn’t exactly the same as being American.
Such as is much easier; it has the same meaning as like or for example (but not exactly the same grammar, so be careful there!). We use it in sentences like this:
There are lots of things to see in London, such as the Tower of London, the London Eye and St. Paul’s Cathedral.
Many countries in Europe, such as France and Germany, use Euros.